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harvest and pressing

vinification

fermentation

fulling and repassing

drawing off

decanting

stabilization and filtration

conservation

bottling

analysis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TO HAVE A GOOD WINE

To have a good wine We desire to give oue readers some simple suggestions on the most elementary procedures to follow with the purpose to introduce you or to improve the marvelous art of the vinification; with this guide we also desire to recommend you some products we realized after accurate centennial studies of sector, with the purpose to put you in condition not to lose that marvelous product that is in the grape or, if already experienced, to allow you to improve Your knowledges in the sublime work to produce Wine.

Laboratorio Zimotecnico Italiano synonym of quality, professionalism, scientific research and services

HARVEST AND PRESSING

The quality of Wine depends above all on the quality of the grapes, which depends in turn from the variety of the vine, from the systems of crop, from the position of the vineyard and from the epoch of the vintage. Grapes are an infructescence of the vine and consists of berries in clusters; black grapes are covered with a tough skeen inside which there is a colouring matter called oenocyanine with tannin and aromatic substances, that give a good smell to the mass. Inside the berries there is a liquid containing glucose and fructose, these sugars have the property of undergoing the alcoholic fermentation, transforming itself into ethylic alcohol and carbonic anhydride; the more mature the grapes are the higher its content (degree) of sugars is. The size of the grapes, the color, the transparency and the elasticity of the skin, besides the direct tasting, provide us the index of maturation of the grapes. Using a must saccharimeter we can decide when it is the best moment to harvest: grapes are picked up in different points of the vineyard, they are squeezed and the sugar gradation is checked; the operation is repeated until the gradation is noticing fixed so the maximum index of maturation: that is the correct moment to harvest. Mature and well dry grapes are chosen and they are picked up in a tub to avoiding to break the grapes. In lack of a centrifugal wine-press and stalk-remover, it is recommended to press the must removing the grape-stalks (which can produce a diminution of alcohol and increase of volatile acidity), and in case it is not possible, at least to avoid breaking them by eliminating them during the pressing together with the sour, small and hard grapes.

PRODUCTS TO USE:

FOSFOSOLFINA (powder). Added to the pressed grapes or to the must, it regulates the fermentation and it prevents the action of the harmful microbes. Dose from 20 to 40gr for q.l of pressed grapes.

ZIMOSOLFINA (liquid). Rich in fosfo-nitrogenous substances, it manages stimulating action on the alcoholic fermentation hindering those harmful. Dose from 30 to 40 gr for q.l of pressed grapes.

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VINIFICATION

Since the times of Noah we know that the must is transformed in wine because of the fermentation, but only for one century and half we have known that the fermentation, action for which sugar is transformed in alcohol, is provoked by microorganisms (called " Yeasts "), that in nature are found on the grapes. The skins of the grapes contain colouring matters, tannin and aromatic substances, that confer perfume to the mass. Unfortunately nature distributes on the grapes good and bad yeasts; the good ones produce alcohol, while the bad ones volatile acidities. Besides when it rains grapes are washed and the quantity of the yeasts is scarce; the result is that the fermentation is slow, the wine remains sweet, subject to illnesses and in spring becomes cloudy. It is necessary then to intervene using selected wine yeasts with the purpose to impose a correct driven fermentation, fighting the bad yeasts and avoiding the rising up of those secondary products that deteriorate wine and predispose it to defects and illnesses. To use LZI Selected Yeasts means therefore: - more rapid and complete fermentation - great output - more ready clarification - low volatile acidity - more agreeableness in the taste of the wine The Laboratorio Zimotecnico Italiano Srl is an Italian industry in the sector of the biotechnology of wine that has begun to reproduce the best strains of selected yeasts, isolating them in total purity, for the varied demands of wine cellar. LZI Selected Wine Yeasts means to operate, giving the maximum, also in case of: difficulty of fermentation for bad years low temperatures of the wine cellar musts deprived of marcs refermentation and reinforcement with must.

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FERMENTATION


Louis Pasteur

Pasteur showed that the fermentation is a biological process, that is provoked by living beings called microbes that, being on the skins of the grape, pass, because of the pressing, in the must and can last from few to many days. During the fermentation little gaseous bubbles start to form in the must that developing give the impression of an ebullition of the whole mass.


yeasts at microscope

The gas that is developed is the carbonic anhydride, that gives a fizzy taste to the liquids; contemporarily to its development the sweet taste of the must is attenuated up to disappear entirely while a characteristic alcoholic taste is revealed; at that time the must has transformed in wine. When you vintage after the rain, the present microbial flora in the grapes can disappear, but also under conditions of optimal climate many of these microorganisms, in our case called yeasts, can be good, but not in quantity to allow a correct fermentation, or abnormal that cause recurrent serious defects in the wine. During fermentation, because of the development of the alcoholic gradation, many yeasts are stopped not allowing the total transformation of the sugar in alcohol. Finally, under conditions of too low temperature or in presence of mildewed grapes the employment of selected ferments becomes peremptory if we want to conduct a regular fermentation.

Here is the necessity to drive the alcoholic fermentation through the employment of selected yeasts, that is pure crops of yeasts produced with strains that introduces superior attitudes and assure the best fermentative results: the maximum alcoholic gradation compatible with the sugar contents of the must, a low volatile acidity and absence of non pleasant products. The Laboratorio Zimotecnico Italiano ® has prepared for You five among the best worldwide Strains that can assure you, according to the demands, the maximum result and to let you have the best possible product, the good Wine.

EXTRA SELECTED WINE YEASTS
for professional level vinification:

DRY YEASTS

They are offered in wrappings of glass from gr 60 (up to 2,5 q.ls of must), from gr 90 (from 3 to 5 q.ls of must), and in vacuum-packed pats from 500 gr (from 5 to 10 q.ls of pressed grapes or must).

Strain FRN39 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain totally neutral, with factor killer, selected for white, red and rosé wines.

Strain CV50 selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain of superior quality confers a delicate bouquet, specific for red and rosé wines.

Strain FRN BN Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts, bayanus strain, selected for red wines of elevated gradation for difficult fermentations and for re-fermentations.

SELECTED YEASTS ON AGAR-MUST

They constitute the most suitable technological form and introduce the maximum power in the alcohol ability of the yeast. They consist of a layer of active cells, reproduced on a substratum of must of grapes made solid with the addition of agar. It is a product whose forms of presentation immediately visualize the full purity of the yeast and the total absence of polluting factors; it is a condition that allows the yeast to express immediately its potentialities. These yests have to be kept in the fridge.

Strain Cv50 Selected yeast and prepared on agar must for red , white and rosé wines.

Strain 494 Selected yeast and prepared on agar must for dry sparkling wines.

Strain 495 Selected yeast and prepared on agar must for sparkling wines of superior level. (go to technical data products)

HARD FERMENTATIONS

In order to get a good fermentation the wine cellar must not be cold, with at least a minimum temperature of 18°, optimal 23°, the grapes must originate from a selection and are of a good year, and finally Selected Yeasts must be used. When that is not possible, it is necessary to use products that help the fermentation. Since, as said previously, it is the complete transformation of the sugars in alcohol that produces a good result, it is advised to add antiseptic substances like metabisulphite of potassium or sulphurous anhydride, as well as substances that activate the fermentation like ammonium phosphate .

PRODUCTS TO USE:

ZIMALINA with Vitamin B1 (powder) Energetic activating of the fermentations for its content of phosphate and vitamin B1; its use becomes essential in the refermentations and difficult fermentations.

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FULLING AND REPASSING OF MUST

During the fermentation, the mass must be shaken more times; this action can be made by hand, or mechanically, by introducing air in the mass, a few times for light wines and numerous times for the full-bodied and colored wines. The repassing is effected by removing the liquid from the base with a pomp and putting it over the grapes dregs again. Fulling and Repassing are suspended before the term of the fermentation.

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DRAWING OFF THE WINE

It is effected with the separation of the wine from the marcs after the primary fermentation; this is the most delicate moment of the whole phase of the vinification, for it is necessary to know when the fermentation has really finished and if we want to get strong and full-bodied wines or light and agreeable wines. It is a good rule to leave the pressed in maceration for long time to low temperatures with the purpose to allow the marcs to transmit tastes and perfumes. However it depends on the type of wine that we want to get; if we want strong , colored and dry wines we have to operate a great maceration, while if we want less tannin wine we have to draw off the wine earlier. The fermentation normally lasts from 5 to 15 days according to the temperature of the wine cellar (with the cold the duration increases and with the heat it decreases), and of the quality of the grapes and its sugar degree. The wine so obtained is passed to the slow fermentation, in full casks with a valve cork to allow the exit of the carbonic anhydride, that comes from the sugar residues.

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DECANTING

Normally the decantings to operate are three. The first one must be effected not too far from the barrelling. The wines with little acidity must be decanted within 15 days in order to separate immediately the wine from the dregs,; while the wines rich in acidity need a longer time, to allow a further contact with the dregs for a better maturation. It is a good rule to remember that the decantings must be effected away from the air in cask with disks of sulphur, and in the case of wines with low acidity, it is necessary to add protective substances that prevent it from rising forms of oxidation. The second decanting is normally effected with the cold in the month of December, while we recommend to effect the third one in the month of April.

PRODUCTS TO USE:

NEUTRAL (powder) It decreases the total and volatile acidity of the wine. Entirely soluble, it doesn't produce veilings.

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STABILIZATION AND FILTRATION

With the purpose to assure brightness and clearness to the wine it is stabilized with the cold, it is filtered then with brightening filters and it is clarified with bentonite (only if very turbid).

PRODUCT TO USE:

BENTOGEL (powder) It clarifies wines without altering their taste.

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CONSERVATION

The wines so stabilized and filtered are then preserved in well closed containers that have to be held full, to avoid the presence of oxygen (casks with filler cork); we remind you that the entry of air produces oxidative alterations.

PRODUCTS TO USE:

SERBOVIT (powder) For red wines it prevents the alterations caused in the wine by contact with the air, forms of oxidation. Added to the wines before the bottling it gives vivacity and freshness of taste and color.
CITROSERBOL “C” (powder) For white and rosy wines with low fixed acidity. It protects from high acidity and from light forms of oxidation. It gives the wine vivacity and freshness.
SERBOL (tablets) It stops the action of the microorganisms that are in the wines.

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BOTTLING

When the wine is totally stabilized we proceed to the bottling. The choice of the cork is important because it has to be chemically inactive and must not interfere with the wine, flattening its bouquet, and must have a physical treatment of sanification. We always recommend corks of quality in homogeneous natural cork, that don’t have problems of transfer. The wines that are destined for aging are moved to small wood casks, we recommend the durmast, which must be washed with antimicrobic compounds (watch out for the mould) and then well dried and, finally, treated where necessary, with natural oenological mastic of quality.

PRODUCTS TO USE:

Sanoxilina powder with high antimicrobic action to wash and to remove defects from the wood casks, tubs and containers for oenology.
Mastice “Extra” oenological superiour scentless and obtained by natural and biological products
Mastice “Hermetic” oenological very light and of high quality for small cracks and doors
Diskettes of Sulphuro tablets to sulphur and to maintain healthy the wine vases.
Oil of vaseline
Paraffin

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ANALYSIS

Since we think it is extremely important to know the characteristics of the obtained wine, its alcoholic gradation, and possible present defects, with the purpose to set, where due, the correct immediate remedies, it is a good rule to proceed to a chemical analysis of the wine before its bottling or storage. Unfortunately the public and private national structures are lacking in this sector; only the big wine cellars and the big societies can afford to have a laboratory of analysis. The middle and small producer is forced, consequently, to act in an empirical and not very professional way. But the wine, obtained after so much commitment, from the grapes production up to the bottling, it is not only a product of great value, but also the outcome of a long work and constant personal devotion; it is not correct to waste it!

The Laboratorio Zimotecnico Italiano ® with its high technological level and in the respect of its mission of devotion to the oenological world, places its own Laboratory of Analysis at disposal and effects free in Italy (with the sole reimbursement of the expenses of consignment) to all its affectionate clientele the analysis of the wine, remitting the customer both the legal chemical document and a specification containing the possible technical suggestions for its amelioration.

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Laboratorio Zimotecnico Italiano synonym of quality, professionalism, scientific research and services

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